Summary of Findings
In 2002, there was a dispute between Tradition Family and Property (TFP) and the Official Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal in Rue de Bac, France. TFP had struck their own version of the Miraculous Medal with some differences from the one promoted by the Official Chapel. Some warnings were sent out by private individuals against purchasing medals not supported by the Official Chapel.
In the summer of 2009, a French woman, known only as “Danielle,” claimed to have received a private revelation from God the Father. According to “Danielle,” the Freemasons had struck a “false” miraculous medal which could be identified by the placement of a star atop the cross on the back of the medal. This particular mark, however, was the same design as the one struck by TFP.
In 2010, “Danielle’s” alleged private revelation was reproduced by a blogger named Sylvie Daigle. She added several of her own observations based upon some differences that she found. Daigle’s observations, published on her website, were picked up (and illustrated) in a number of different French media sources without crediting her. The claim of a “false” medal then spread into various languages, most notably the English and Italian-speaking worlds.
Within the English-speaking world, the claim notably arose in 2015. Instead, however, of a star atop the cross, the Freemason’s compass symbol was said to be at the bottom. This mark was mislabeled. The mark was actually the monogram “AM” for Ave Maria. The story, without the clarification, reached the Philippines where it influenced Fr. Ambrosio Legaspi, a Diocesan exorcist. He promoted the idea in 2017, causing more media outlets to publish the story.
During a talk in New Jersey in October, 2018, Fr. Michel Rodrigue of Amos, Québec, warned people about a “false” miraculous medal. He identified the “false” medal as the one with the star atop the cross. Fr. Rodrigue’s warning rekindled the concerns, which persist today, about a “false” miraculous medal.
From this information, we conclude that the claim that the Freemasons struck and disseminated a “false” miraculous medal is questionable and indeed highly doubtful for the following reasons:
- The claim is historically rooted in a public dispute between two competing organizations;
- The claim has roots in unverified claims of private revelation;
- The dissemination of the claim is largely uncritical;
- The truth and history of the claim became obfuscated very quickly;
- Contemporary media spread information before it was properly vetted.
In order to see these things more clearly, we provide the reader with a lengthy presentation of the facts. We begin with a presentation on the history of the Miraculous Medal followed by a short discussion on a “false” miraculous medal. We then discuss how the claim arose of a “false” miraculous medal according to the best information that is available at this time.
What is the Miraculous Medal?
On November 27, 1830, the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to a French nun named St. Catherine Labouré. During this apparition, the Blessed Virgin showed an image to St. Catherine and ordered that a medal be made according to the design in the vision. St. Catherine recounted that vision as follows:
On November 27, 1830, which was a Saturday, and the eve of the first Sunday of Advent, at half past five in the evening, doing the meditation in a deep silence, I thought I heard from the right side of the sanctuary, like the sound of a silk dress, I saw the Blessed Virgin near the painting of Saint Joseph; her height was medium and her face so beautiful that it would be impossible for me to describe its beauty. She was standing, dressed in a dawn white dress, with the form that we call the virgin, that is to say, rising and with flat sleeves. The head was covered with a white veil which descended on each side to the feet. Her hair was in bands, and over it, a sort of headband trimmed with a small lace, placed flat on the hair. The face was fairly uncovered, and the feet were resting on a globe, or better, half a globe, at least, I only saw half of it. Her hands, raised to the height of the belt, very easily held another globe (figure of the universe). She had her eyes raised towards heaven, and her face lit up as she offered the globe to Our Lord. […]
As I was busy contemplating it, the holy Virgin looked down upon me and a voice said to me from the bottom of my heart: “This globe that you see represents the whole world, and particularly France and each person in particular.” […] A somewhat oval picture was formed around the holy Virgin on which we read written in gold letters these words: “O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to you.”
From St. Catherine’s description, the Blessed Virgin appears holding a globe. Her eyes were raised towards heaven and her face was radiant. The vision then included an oval shape around the Blessed Virgin and the words, “O Mary, conceived without sin, pray for us who have recourse to you” were seen. St. Catherine then continued her description as follows:
Then a voice was heard which said to me: “Strike, strike a medal on this model, the people who will wear it indulgently will receive great graces, especially by wearing it around the neck; the graces will be abundant for the people who will have confidence.” Instantly…the picture seemed to turn over.
Interestingly, St. Catherine’s account ends there in the notes of her director, Fr. Aladel. What did the backside of the image look like? Aladel himself received the information from St. Catherine and wrote about it as follows: “The picture having turned around, she saw, on the reverse, the letter M surmounted by a cross, having a bar at its base and below the monogram of Mary the hearts of Jesus and Mary, the first surrounded by a crown of thorns and the other pierced with a sword.”
The medal design and striking was approved by the Archbishop of Paris, Msgr. de Quélen. The task of designing them was given to Adrien Vachette. The first medals appeared in 1832, after some difficulty with the design prompted some changes to be made. The difficulty largely concerned how the Virgin should be portrayed. The image of her holding a globe created difficulties for the designers, so they went with a more common pose known as the “Immaculate Virgin.” This pose shows the Virgin with arms extended and rays of light coming from her hands.
Another difference concerns the stars. Such were not described by St. Catherine Labouré. Aladel’s book adds the note that the twelve stars “have always featured on the reverse side of the medal. It is morally certain that this detail was given viva voce by the nun during the apparitions.” This note, however, was not written by Aladel himself but rather the editor of his notes. In fact, Aladel tried to have the stars removed in 1848. It was not until 1880 that twelve stars even became the norm for the medal.
After the medal was struck and distributed, the promised graces were indeed so numerous that the medal was viewed as truly being “miraculous.” This is how the medal got its name of the “Miraculous Medal.” St. Paul Street Evangelization believes deeply in Our Lady’s promise to St. Catherine Labouré and the miracles associated with the medal. Our apostolate encourages the medal’s use among our street evangelization teams in their work of taking the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the streets. We have even experienced for ourselves the promised graces through the Miraculous Medal. Thus, we take seriously the claim that there is a “false” miraculous medal in circulation.
What is a “False” Miraculous Medal?
From the available evidence, it is not clear what exactly constitutes a “false” miraculous medal. There is conflicting information in the French, English and Italian-speaking worlds that make it very difficult for people to know with certitude the answer to this question. Generally speaking, some claims state that Freemasons have produced their own version of the miraculous medal. Other claims do not specify Freemasons, but speak simply of a “false” or “satanic” miraculous medal. Sometimes, this latter claim is associated with or without the name of a specific organization producing them.
When Did the Claim Arise that “False” Miraculous Medals were Circulating?
When the claim arose that Miraculous Medals were being falsified is not known with precision. We do know that the claim arose prominently in the year 2011 within the French-speaking world but can be further traced back to 2009. It is also quite possible that the matter arose sometime after a notable dispute in 2002. Let us take a look at the facts as best as we can ascertain at this time.
The Francophone World
In 2002, the organization Tradition, Family and Property (TFP) had organized a mailing campaign in France. TFP was using the Miraculous Medal as part of this campaign. Brochures soliciting funds were also part of the campaign. Some confusion arose, however, about the relationship between TFP and the Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal. This is the official location in France for the promulgation of the Miraculous Medal devotion. There was no cooperation, however, between the two organizations, a fact that was not readily apparent to countless people receiving the literature.
The Chapel began to receive many requests for clarification. It was forced to have an entire courier service to assist with the sheer volume of letters that were arriving. According to its chaplain, Fr. Daniel Planchot, “People are being deceived because they think they are sending us money. But we have nothing to do with it. These are significant sums…. The avalanches of letters arriving in Rue du Bac…. We have a whole courier service, just for that!” He issued an official notice in 2002:
As the one responsible for the Notre-Dame de la Médaille Miraculeuse Chapel, 140 rue du Bac, Paris, 7e, I would like to point out to you that we receive many complaints on the subject of the association Tradition, Family, Property (TFP) following their mailing of leaflets for a novena using the miraculous medal and its message. By the same token, it invites people to give sums of 20 to 175 [Euros] and even more! A good number of people thinking that it is in relation to our chapel are being deceived! We strongly affirm that we have nothing to do with this association!
In a statement to the well-known French publication La Croix, Fr. Planchot commented upon the legal status of the Miraculous Medal. He said, “Moreover, the popularity of the medal is such that it is made almost everywhere and that it would be difficult to control its production. It is not a commercial product.” In other words, the Chapel does not have a monopoly on the medal’s production even though the Chapel is the official organization for the Miraculous Medal. Without a copyright, people are free to produce their own medals and even to introduce some differences.
There is little information available in the public forum about events surrounding this dispute between the Chapel and TFP in subsequent years. For our purposes, two questions arise:
- What effect did this dispute have upon the French-speaking world?
- Did TFP produce a Miraculous Medal with a slightly different design so as to distinguish it from the Chapel’s version?
Regarding the first question, it is likely that people took sides. Certainly, the Chapel had the higher prestige in the dispute. It is the official organization with the longer-standing association with the medal and devotion. As evidenced by the fact of the number of concerns raised to the Chapel, people knew to go to it for answers. As regards the second question, let us hold off on answering that question.
Continuing with our examination of the facts, we come to the year 2009. On June 1 of this year, a group of Catholics began to promote alleged private revelations on a website called “Saint Michael the Archangel and the Guardian Angels” (Saint Michel Archange et Les Anges Protecteurs). We shall refer to it as SMALAP. There were some notable persons within SMALAP: “Danielle” (photo here), “Marie-Pierre” and a gentleman named “Mickael” (see pictures here). The website promoted alleged private revelations received by “Danielle” and “Marie-Pierre.”
Between July 27 and August 2, 2009, “Danielle” claimed to have received private revelations from God the Father. These alleged revelations were published on the SMALAP website under the title of “Perfect Example of a Bad Priest” (Exemple parfait du mauvais prêtre). Concerning this entry, there was a short section entitled “Freemasonry and the Church of Scientology” (La Franc-Maçonnerie et l’Eglise de Scientologie). Within this section was some text in caps and two photos underneath that contained a warning. The text above the photos read as follows (caps removed for ease of reading):
A true sect problem has invaded the Church and infested the little Camargue: Freemasonry[.] The Church has recruited priests among the Freemasons. Since the apparitions of Mary in Medjugorje began, the dianetics say: “Church of Scientology.” It is joined with Freemasonry. You should know that Freemasonry is diffusing false Rue du Bac medals (Miraculous Medals). The wolves sit among the lambs. God says: I have spoken. I await your reply.
Below this statement are the images that were mentioned earlier. They are as follows:
The English translation of the text below these images is, “Attention: In many places of sale, you will find this FALSE Medal. Its price is lower. Its material, often in metal. LOURDES has a lot of them. Be careful! (note from Mickaël).” There was a slightly different version of this same information that appeared on the website in October of 2009.
In summary, “Danielle” alleged that the Freemasons had produced a “false” miraculous medal. Its tell-tale sign is given as the placement of a star atop the cross on the back of the medal. The website does not state whether this identification is from “Danielle” and her alleged private revelations. Therefore, “Danielle” and the others at SMALAP advanced the idea of Freemasons producing a false miraculous medal, but fell short of claiming their authority for specifying the placement of the star. Was this identification of the star, then, a new development or based upon a previous interpretation?
The next major development in this story came on February 19, 2010. A French woman named Sylvie Daigle reproduced the SMALAP material on her personal web site. She added, however, a personal note afterwards: “I, Sylvie Daigle, here specify my name to avoid any confusion; I would like to share with you the remarks of a friend of Jesus about the fake medal.” Daigle’s clarification is extremely important because the “remarks” that followed are specified as not being from SMALAP. Rather, Daigle attributes them to a “friend of Jesus” (un ami de Jésus). It is quite possible that she is referring to herself as elsewhere Daigle refers to herself with this moniker. Her remarks were as follows:
Huge counterfeit, highly satanic!!!
As huge as NASA’s doctored image of Christ
- The star becomes central: it is the morning star, symbol of Lucifer.
- The top of the false cross bears a satanic head;
- The M sees its position reversed, turned over: what was in front becomes behind, and vice versa: in other words, satan who is behind is put forward, and Christ is put behind;
- The M is no longer vertical but inclined: in other words, it no longer has the value of a pillar, because no pillar is supporting if it is tilted;
- The sword no longer pierces the heart, but is put in the background;
- The heart is no longer a heart but a crowned triangle, and it is no longer a star which overhangs it, but a head with a double goat horn;
- The whole M and cross is like… striped with transverse lines, heavy horizontal vibrations weighing heavily on the earth, instead of presenting only a gold outline.
In the above observations, Daigle builds upon the sole criterion given by SMALAP by adding six more. This is, moreover, apparently either her private opinion or that of someone else’s (depending upon whether she is the “friend of Jesus”). Daigle does not stand upon an alleged private revelation in order to state her observations. She simply renders them and that is all.
After Daigle’s post, the information that she added seemed to have taken on a life of its own. Within the French-speaking world, more people began to discuss the matter and manipulate the material. Unfortunately, who manipulated the material remains unknown. Nevertheless, by March 1, 2010, a forum called Come, Lord Jesus (viens, seigneur Jésus) picked up the discussion about false miraculous medals in a thread entitled “Attention!!! On false miraculous medals circulating everywhere!” (Attention!!! De fausses Médailles miraculeuses circulent partout!).
In the opening post of the thread, we see the exact same photos used by SMALAP. Although, now there is a difference. There is a new prefatory text to the images of the “true” medal and the “false” medal. Here is this prefatory text in English translation:
!!! WARNING !!! An enormous counterfeit, highly diabolical, is doing its work of destruction right now !!! WARNING !!!
False Miraculous Medals are currently circulating in large numbers all over the planet. Satanic symbols have been discreetly integrated. In addition, they probably received satanic incantations. These medals should not be used, but gotten rid of. The procedure to follow requires giving them to a priest who will know how to dispose of them. Do not throw them in the trash because they have been blessed anyway. The priest will do the appropriate prayers to “de-bless” them. Here is what a real Miraculous Medal looks like on its front/back sides:
The image of the “true” medal follows after this quote.
The image of the “false” medal is zoomed in and there are additional pictures with arrows. These arrows are pointing to the specific areas noted by Daigle in her post. Following the image are the same observations that Daigle made. There is some difference in word order in the first observation, but the rest are word-for-word. The agreement indicates that someone else took Daigle’s words and manipulated the images in order to demonstrate where exactly her observations were directed. Unfortunately, she is not credited. It seems that the material passed into popular usage and its origins forgotten. The material continued to spread within the French-speaking world.
A few days later, on March 5, 2011, another forum named Vers La Nouvelle Jérusalem (Towards the New Jerusalem) saw some discussion of the topic. This forum’s user “SonathAuClairdeLune” started a thread entitled “False miraculous medal in circulation/Freemasonry” (Fausse médaille miraculeuse en circulation/Franc maçonnerie). For our purposes, there is nothing new that we have not already seen.
The beginning of the thread simply repeats Daigle’s observations (sans the NASA reference) and then repeats the alleged private revelation from “Danielle” from July/August of 2009. Mickael’s warning is also repeated. There is no attribution to any of these sources, although in subsequent responses, other users mention that they had received a similar notice via E-mail “a few months ago” (il y a quelques mois déjà). Clearly, then, the information was being passed around different circles, albeit carelessly.
On June 18, 2011, a post was published on the French edition of the website Gloria.tv. The post was entitled “False miraculous medal and plastic rosary” (Fausse médaille miraculeuse et chapelet plastique) by a user under the avatar name “osseshalom,” reportedly from Loiret, France. “Osseshalom” provided detailed information about the “false” miraculous medals. The post contained two images relative to the medal and was entitled “Miraculous Medal: The True and The False” (Medaille Miraculeuse La Vrai et La Fausse). Here are the images as they appeared on the page:
A second difference is in a text that followed an image of the supposedly “true medal” in its front and back sides. The words were, “No other information should be entered, Country, manufacturer, etc …” A third difference is in the image of the “false” miraculous medal. This image has seven arrows as opposed to five arrows in the Come, Lord Jesus forum image. These various differences are fairly minor when it comes to establishing the history of the texts.The information is a simple two-page image in French with many colorful highlights and texts, indicating that someone was taking time to make the information more presentable. The same information was repeated that we have already examined, but with some differences. First, the opening text is similar to that found on the Come, Lord Jesus forum, but it was modified slightly at the end: “Do not throw them in the trash because they have been blessed anyway. The priest will do the prayers, of exorcism.” There was no specific reference to exorcism in the Come, Lord Jesus forum entry.
Several comments were issued under this article by readers of Gloria.tv. The user “osseshalom” issued another comment in which a source for this information was provided. The given link was to a page of a website in French that was described by “osseshalom” as the “Rue de Bac website.” The page, however, was not to the Official Chapel but to a private devotional website calling itself “The Immaculate.” The page in question was entitled “Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal” (Notre Dame de la Médaille Miraculeuse). The site can be accessed only through the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.
The site’s Miraculous Medal page warned about “false” miraculous medals in circulation:
Be careful, unfortunately there are false miraculous medals. You must wear the real medal requested by the Blessed Virgin. To obtain it with a guarantee, it is recommended to buy it at the sanctuary on Rue du Bac in Paris, or in serious religious shops. But to verify its authenticity, you have to look at the engraving of the “M” on the reverse of the medal. The 1st slash of the M passes over the horizontal bar which carries the Cross; the second slash passes below. Below the M are: the Heart of Jesus with the crown and the Flame, and the Heart of Mary with the sword and the Flame. All surrounded by 12 stars.
Unfortunately, there is no source cited for this claim of a false medal, not even a reference to Freemasonry. The warning is simply about “false miraculous medals” and some indications are given as to what constitutes an “authentic” medal (and, by logical extension, what would constitute a “false” miraculous medal). There is nothing about a star atop the cross indicating a “false” miraculous medal. The reader is recommended to obtain an “authentic” medal through the official Chapel or “serious religious shops” in order to ensure that he/she receives an authentic medal.
Interestingly, a record exists of the Miraculous Medal page of “The Immaculate” website to June 14, 2009. This fact means that the claim of a circulating “false” miraculous medal predates the alleged messages of “Danielle” from SMALAP. What, then, does this fact tell us? It demonstrates that there were prior rumors circulating in the French-speaking world about the existence of a “false” miraculous medal. The specifics, however, of what constitutes this “falsity” are not entirely clear as the available evidence is inconclusive. There is yet one further site with some very interesting information for our examination.
On February 17, 2011, the forum Angelic Doctor Catholic Forum (Docteur Angélique forum Catholique) discussed the “false” miraculous medals. In a thread entitled “Satanic Symbol (Symbole Satanique), this forum’s user “Michael” posted about some satanic symbolism. Later on the same day, another user named “giacomorocca” posted about the “false” miraculous medal: “A priest who does the ministry of liberation told me about the miraculous medal and to pay attention to those which have a star above the cross as in the model below; has anyone else commented on this?” A picture was provided:
“This miraculous medal, which is a pale copy of the Rue du Bac [version], comes from TRADITION, FAMILY, PROPERTY, which sends it in large numbers, to obtain donations (I received 2 of this kind). It is a scam and not a satanic sign. It is made in Italy, the stars are not arranged like the original. And there is the omission “who have recourse to you.” I believe that this priest, just like the “Daughters of Charity” of Rue du Bac in Paris, denounces [it].”The next day, forum user “Arc-en-Ciel” responded to “giacomorocca.” “Arc-en-Ciel” provided a personal witness that referenced the dispute between TFP and the official Miraculous Medal Chapel:
“Arc-en-Ciel” then provides a website for more information. Presuming that the claims from “Arc-en-Ciel” are accurate, then the question of the medal’s design goes back to the dispute between TFP and the Official Chapel. At this time, more work/research needs to be done in order to verify the claim. It requires talking with the TFP organization in France as well as the Official Chapel.
There were some further developments in the Francophone world about the “false” miraculous medal. The Gloria.tv post, however, seemed to serve as the basis for many subsequent diffusions of the claim elsewhere in the world.
The Anglophone World
News of a “false” miraculous medal came into the English-speaking world in 2012. On September 15 of that year, user “Julie de Sales” on the website Phatmass stated that she had come across the article from Gloria.tv. She wrote (grammar is not corrected):
Hey! I need REAL help! My problem is related to the Miraculous Medal. I received one from the sisters I visit once in a while and I was searching on Internet to find more information about it. By accident, I stepped into a web-site in French who claims that there are false Miraculous Medals, satanic ones, that have small differences from the authentic ones. Looking at the Medal that I was wearing, I noticed that [it] is the fake one. So, I panicked, I replaced it with one who is like the original, but now what should I do: I have more fake Medals at home and what do I do with them? Should I announce the sisters which gave me the Medal that they are distributing satanic Medals? Is this story even true or some people are exaggerating? I’m so confused…..
Other Phatmass users responded to “Julie de Sales.” One person referred to the mental status of the people promoting the idea as “hysterical.” Another user commented in terms of the production process, “Guess what, artisans have to strike the medals, and if you don’t have the original die you have to MAKE YOUR OWN. Obviously differences arise.”
Between 2012 and 2015, the claim of a “false” miraculous medal seemed to be non-existent within the Anglophone world. It arose very prominently, however, beginning on March 6 of 2015. The online forum Suscipe Domine saw some discussion of the claim by user “Clare.” “Clare” asked if anyone had heard of the claim and cited the Gloria.tv website that we referenced earlier. This user received about two pages of varied responses from fellow users, their general tone being somewhat dismissive.
The claim then made its way to the website Traditional AltarBoy (TAB) on October 28, 2015 in a post entitled “Check your miraculous medals!” There was, however, a difference. Instead of the Gloria.tv information, TAB posted a new photograph and a new observation: “If you haven’t heard, the Freemasons have been making blasphemous versions of the miraculous medals by replacing the 12th star from Our Lady’s crown with a Masonic compass. This may or may not be news to my viewers, but regardless: this must be put in the public.” This is the photo provided in the post (see also here):
TAB, however, did not provide the source of this information. Unfortunately, it is not clear if TAB was the source or if it was reproducing an existing claim from another source.
In the subsequent discussion that arose underneath the article, some people questioned this version of the claim. In this iteration, it was said that the “A” underneath the two hearts on the back of the medal was the Freemasons’ compass symbol. The commenters pointed out that it could also have been the monogram of the two letters “A” and “M” for Ave Maria. After some resistance, the owner of Traditional AltarBoy came to accept this interpretation. He also deleted the post from his site.
This matter arose again on Suscipe Domine also on October 28, 2015 but this time by a user named “Spooky.” The discussion surrounded the new image and not the Gloria.tv story that “Clare” spoke of earlier in the year on this forum. The subsequent one-page discussion largely decided in favor of the A/M monogram interpretation. The website Veneremur Cernui from Dallas, Texas also picked up the story. The Traditional AltarBoy website was cited as the source. Another website, TradCathKnight, also picked up the story.
The next day, October 29, a priest by the name of Fr. Isaac Mary Relyea posted about the claim on his Facebook page. His post essentially reiterated what was on the TAB site: “Check your miraculous medals! If you haven’t heard, the Freemasons have been making blasphemous versions of the miraculous medals by replacing the 12th star from Our Lady’s crown with a Masonic compass. This must be put in the public.” Relyea also reproduced the same photo that was placed on the TAB and Suscipe Domine websites.
This particular development was noteworthy because Fr. Relyea is a noted speaker within various Catholic circles. His name and reputation advanced the claim that much faster within certain areas of the Catholic blogosphere. His post was shared over 1,300 times and over different geographical regions of the world (the Philippines being one). Two subscribers to Fr. Relyea’s page, Bob Sullivan (an Attorney) and Michelle Pingel, decided to do some research of their own on the matter.
Sullivan and Pingel posted a link to a website entitled Freemasonstore.com where one could obtain jewelry with Freemasonic designs. This website is no longer functioning. The Internet Archive Wayback Machine shows that the site was indeed selling jewelry with Catholic images. Unfortunately, the Miraculous Medal specified by Sullivan and Pingel appears to be unavailable. Therefore, the precise product cannot be inspected for any potential differences or markings indicative of Freemasonry.
The next iteration of the “false” miraculous medal claim came on August 7, 2017. On this date, Fr. Ambrosio (“Brosh”) Nonato Legaspi of the Diocese of Novaliches in the Philippines gave a radio interview with the program Hello Father 911. The episode discussed the topic “Infestations, Padugo, and Pagaalay (Common Reasons For Infestations).” The broadcast is on Facebook but is not in English. Fr. Legaspi was, around the time of the broadcast, the chief exorcist for the Diocese of Novaliches.
During the program, Fr. Legaspi issued a warning to the audience about some counterfeit satanic rosaries. Many different media outlets carried this particular story and it was referenced on numerous Internet sites. It was, however, not all that Fr. Legaspi mentioned during the broadcast. According to Minnie Agdeppa of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) news outlet, Fr. Legaspi commented on false miraculous medals as follows:
In addition, Legaspi also warned about Masonic medals that are also in circulation. He said these look like the that of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal except that a compass, which is the insignia of the Masons, can be found at the bottom. Masons, a secret society of men, have been known and declared by the Catholic Church as anti-Christian and anti-Church.
A review of the episodes on Facebook of the broadcast shows that Fr. Legaspi did not show an example of the “false” Miraculous Medals while on the air with De Guzman. His description, however, about the Masonic insignia at the bottom of the medal indicates that Legaspi’s sources are taken from the 2015 materials in the Anglophone world and not the earlier information in the Francophone world. Moreover, a review of Legaspi’s Facebook profile shows that he posted the story on November 3, 2015. He stated at the time, “If you haven’t heard, the Freemasons have been making blasphemous versions of the miraculous medals by replacing the 12th star from Our Lady’s crown with a Masonic compass. This must be put in the public.” It was shared 178 times.
We shall return to the story of “false” miraculous medals within the English-speaking world. For now, let us turn to the Italian-speaking world. There were some developments within this culture that have an effect upon the Anglophone world.
The Italian-Speaking World
Precisely when the claim of a “false” miraculous medal entered the Italian-speaking world is not entirely clear at this time. However, there are some notable examples of the claim’s spread in this world.
The claim of a “false” miraculous medal circulated within the Italian world in 2015. On October 7 of that year, the website “Light in the Heart” (Luce nel cuore) carried an article on the matter. It reproduces the images from the Gloria.tv website that we saw earlier, but provides information in Italian and Spanish. It does, however, add a couple of new details. First, instead of the first observation of a star above the cross, the first observation in the Italian materials is “The stars do not have 5 points, but 6 points. False versions with 5-pointed stars can also be found, but the arrangement and position are different from the original.” Second, and related to the first, the seventh observation now says:
In the false and Masonic version there appears a star with 6 points on the cross, which would represent, according to the Masonic symbolism, the light that carries the same lucifer. There are also versions with 5-pointed stars instead of 6, but always with a star above the cross, placed perpendicularly, and many times this star is reversed. In the original there is no star above the cross, perpendicular to it, but there are two stars each placed on the upper sides of the cross. The same can be seen at the bottom of the medal.
In other words, the same observation about a star above the cross is made, but there are some newly added details. Luce nel cuore cited its sources at the bottom of the post. First, the Gloria.tv post was given. Then, it appears as though another website was added later. This new website is Luce di Maria and is to an entry dated to January 10, 2016 that is entitled “Attention to the false Miraculous Medal diffused by Masonry” (Attenzione alla falsa Medaglia Miracolosa divulgata dalla massoneria). No name is attached to the entry and it is simply listed under “Editorial Staff” (Redazione).
The article begins with an explanatory note about the diffusion of the “false” medal by Freemasonry. It does, however, say that the source of the story is a “priest from Alghero.” Alghero is a city on the island of Sardinia. The priest, however, is unnamed. The seven observations from Sylvie Daigle are featured, with a recommendation about what a person can do if he or she finds a “false” medal. People are encouraged to recite “a prayer and throw them [the medals] into the running water of a river or stream, or into the sea.” A YouTube video about the “authentic” Miraculous Medal ends the entry.
In May of 2016, the Italian publication Chiesa Viva carried an article about the matter. The article is entitled “A Satanic Miraculous Medal” (Una Medaglia Miracolosa SATANICA!) and was written by a Dr. Franco Adessa. At the beginning of the article, Adessa (the editor of Chiesa Viva) cites an article from another publication Miraculi [e misteri] as a source for his information. The article is entitled “Masonic and Demonic Symbols on the Rue de Bac Medal? The Truth.”
Adessa reproduces seven points that he states are taken from the Miraculi publication:
- The stars do not have 5 points but 6 points. False versions with 5 points can also be found, but the arrangement and position (of the stars) are different from the original.
- The “M” does not have a straight position, but an inclined one.
- The cross and the “M” intersect in the opposite way from the original.
- On the hearts, the symbol of Freemasonry appears, in a disguised way, as if they were thorns, that is, the square and the compass.
- The sword of the Heart of Mary does not cross the same Heart, but is behind it.
- The Cross has a very strange shape and its arms are not straight and, in the terminal part of each side of the Cross, spikes appear. The false version of the cross can end with spikes that look like horns or forks and that remind, in the upper part (together with the part that is above) what Lucifer has on his head, as represented in the Satanic and Masonic iconography.
- In the false and Masonic version, a 6-pointed star appears on the cross, which according to the Masonic symbology would represent the light that Lucifer himself carries. There are also versions with 5-pointed stars instead of 6, but always with a star above the cross, placed perpendicularly, and many times this star is reversed. In the original, there is no star above the cross, perpendicular to it, but there are two stars, each placed on the upper sides of the cross. The same can be seen in the lower part of the medal.
From this information, we see that many of Daigle’s observations are given here, but Adessa does not attribute them to her. There is the notable exception of a new observation about 6-pointed stars as opposed to five-pointed stars. We also find the “star atop the cross” observation to be present in the first and seventh observations above.
Adessa then adds a note of criticism after this observation. He cites a priest named Don Michele Barone in an article entitled “It is false but innocuous” (È un falso ma innocuo) who stated:
“I inquired at the Chapel of Rue du Bac, from which it can also be deduced from the official website […] that there is no complaint regarding an alleged false miraculous medal in circulation.” Don Michele says he believes that “it is only a reproduction error by those who struck it, without paying too much attention to the position of the various signs.”
Adessa then provides a “single mosaic” (unico mosaico) that demonstrates all of the differences. He follows up this statement with four pages of rather elaborate diagrams and images, complete with texts that make further notes and observations. None of these notes and observations are sourced, thus giving them the appearance of being from Adessa himself. Therefore, they rest upon his credibility, which, from his publications, does not appear to be the most critical and trustworthy.
Lastly, between 2017 and 2018, there were a few more Italian websites that carried the general story about “false” miraculous medals in circulation. For the vast majority, they all agree on the central points of identifying the allegedly “false” miraculous medal. There is an entry on the website Il Sorriso de Maria and is dated to June 5, 2017. On June 13, 2018, the website “The Miraculous Medal” (La Medaglia Miracolosa) carried an article on the subject.
More Recent Developments (2018-2020)
In more recent times, the claim about false miraculous medals arose in 2018 by a priest named Fr. Michel Rodrigue. Rodrigue is a priest, incardinated in the Diocese of Hearst-Moosonee, Ontario (Canada) but who works in the Diocese of Amos, Québec. He is the founder of a community called the “Apostolic Fraternity of Saint Benedict Joseph Labre.” Rodrigue has engaged in a number of speaking engagements from 2018 to the present. Additionally, Fr. Rodrigue’s story is recounted in the book The Warning: Testimonies and Prophecies of The Illumination of Conscience by Christine Watkins.
Rodrigue also claims to have received private revelations from various heavenly personages since his childhood, most notably God the Father. As a result of this claim, and his subsequent travels, an air of personal prestige has been afforded to Fr. Rodrigue by his listeners. He is heavily promoted by Mark Mallett of Canada and Daniel O’Connor of New York on the website Countdown to the Kingdom.
Fr. Rodrigue remarked about “false” miraculous medals. During a talk in New Jersey in October, 2018, Fr. Rodrigue made the following statement (note Fr. Rodrigue is not a native English speaker):
And during several times the Virgin Mary appeared, particularly the miraculous medal which is the medal for the bad time. The end of time will happen. We will have some others here you can be sure. But this time is the end of the bad time. The miraculous medal behind has 12 stars, and each star has to be on the side of the top of the Cross, because the satanic cult now put the star over the vertical arm of the Cross. This is not the miraculous medal, throw it out. The real one is the one made under the council of the Virgin Mary when she appeared in 1813 to Catherine Labouré in France. And after that we have many many apparition, and we have also in Ireland Our Lady of Knock, and we have in Guadalupe.
According to Fr. Rodrigue, the false version of the miraculous medal is one that does not have the twelve stars “on the side of the top of the Cross.” He claims that a “satanic cult” (that he does not name) had “put the star over the vertical arm of the Cross.” In other words, if there is a star at the top of the vertical beam of the cross, then Fr. Rodrigue says that this is a false miraculous medal and to “throw it out.”
Unfortunately, Fr. Rodrigue does not cite his source and this is a notable problem given his status as an alleged mystic. Is Rodrigue basing his statement upon his alleged private revelations or some other source? The answer to this question is inconclusive. He might have been relying upon his alleged revelations, or, as a native French-speaking priest, he might have relied upon information passed around the French-speaking world.
Lastly, the website La Luce di Maria again raised the topic of “false” miraculous medals. On November 27, 2019, the website published an article entitled “The Miraculous Medal: How to Distinguish the Authentic One from the False One” (La Medaglia Miracolosa: come distinguere quella autentica dalla falsa). There is nothing new in this article from what we have already seen. It was picked up through a Google-translated version by Stephen Ryan of Mystic Post on December 2, 2019.
St. Paul Street Evangelization Enters the Discussions
St. Paul Street Evangelization was first made aware of the claim of the “false” miraculous medals in March of 2016. At that time, a patron brought to our attention that our Miraculous Medals had the star atop the cross. We sought clarification on the matter and had recourse to trusted members of the clergy. It was decided that the information then spreading on the Internet was not based upon solid research and was erroneous.
Providentially, we were at that time placing a new order of Miraculous Medals with our Italian provider. In consultation with the provider, we re-designed the Medal so that there is no star atop the cross and that the stars have five points and not six. We have carried this design ever since, though without prejudice to other designs with the star atop the cross as it is not a symbol of Freemasonry.
There is a lot of information to take in with respect to the above presentation. We encourage people to take time with everything and to study it at one’s own pace. What is essential to take away, however, from the presentation is what we stated at the beginning: the claim that the Freemasons struck and disseminated a “false” miraculous medal is questionable and indeed highly doubtful. The origins of the claim are suspect and were driven by uncritical people, some of which had quite an imagination.
In the end, we wish to stress the fact that St. Paul Street Evangelization does not sell “false” miraculous medals. You can rest assured that if you purchase medals from our store, you are receiving authentic medals. We would like to thank you for taking the time to read this document and for your continued support of St. Paul Street Evangelization.
Bonus: What is Wrong if Freemasons Strike Their Own Version of the “Miraculous Medal?”
Underlying this entire presentation has been the thought that it is bad for Freemasons to strike their own version of the miraculous medal. Why would Catholics be offended if the Freemasons struck their own medal?
The Freemasons are a secret society, one that is diametrically opposed to the Catholic Church. Their opposition to the Church is due, in part, to the organization’s adherence to beliefs that are contrary to Catholic doctrine. After the founding of the Grand Lodge in London, England in 1717, the Freemasons were condemned by the Church. The first such condemnation was given by Pope Clement XII (r. 1730 – 1740) on April 28, 1738 in a Papal Bull entitled In Eminénti Apostolátus.
Clement’s successor, Pope Benedict XIV (r. 1740 – 1758), reiterated Clement’s condemnation on May 18, 1751 in his own Papal Bull entitled Próvidas Romanórum Pontíficum. Benedict XIV, a very erudite and learned man in his day, confirmed Clement’s decee and outlined several reasons why Freemasonry was incompatible with Catholic life and doctrine. Subsequent Popes issued condemnations of Freemasonry and secret societies in general over the next 150+ years, the most notable of which was Pope Leo XIII (r. 1878-1903). He is well-known for his famous landmark 1884 Encyclical Humánum Genus in which he excoriated the Freemasons and exposed their designs for all to see.
These condemnations of Freemasonry carried with them penalties for any Catholic who joined the Freemasons. Any such Catholic who joined was considered by the Church to be automatically excommunicated. The condemnations and penalty were later codified in the 1917 Code of Canon Law. On November 26, 1983, the Holy See reiterated that Catholics may not join the Freemasons. All said, Catholic teaching on the Freemasons is clear. Freemasonry adheres to beliefs contrary to the Catholic Church and Catholics may not join the Freemasons.
These facts bring us back to our original question: why would it be a problem for Freemasons to strike their own version of the miraculous medal? An organization that is diametrically opposed to the Catholic Church, such as the Freemasons, would invite questions regarding the organization’s intentions in striking miraculous medals. For reasons of doctrine and of pious considerations, such medals would be considered by Catholics to be suspect at the very least, if not blasphemous and offensive.
- Militia Immaculata, “Which Miraculous Medal is Genuine?” (March 3, 2016). Available in French.
- Rosaire Raymond, “Controversial Sacramentals?” (French). See also a PDF here.
- Holy See, Directory on Popular Piety and the Liturgy (2001).
- The Chapel of Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal, Official Website (English).
- Bob and Penny Lord, Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal.
St. Paul Street Evangelization
 M. Aladel, La Médaille Miraculeuse: origine–histoire–diffusion–résultats (Paris: Pillet et Dumoulin, 1878), 74-76. Translation by Kevin J. Symonds. This book was translated into English in 1880 as The Miraculous Medal: Its Origin, History, Circulation, Results.
 Ibid., 76.
 Ibid., 73.
 Ibid., 90.
 Ibid., 85ff.
 Aladel, 76. “Cependant elles ont toujours figuré sur le revers de la médaille. Il est moralement sûr que ce détail a été donné de vive voix par la sœur, lors des apparitions.”
 Aladel, 121ff.
 Ibid., see also here. “En tant que Responsable de la chapelle Notre-Dame de la Médaille miraculeuse, 140 rue du Bac, Paris, 7e, je vous signale que nous recevons de nombreuses plaintes au sujet de l’association Tradition, famille, propriété (TFP) suite à leur envoi par courrier de tracts pour une neuvaine se servant de la médaille miraculeuse et de son message. Par là même, on invite les gens à donner des sommes de 20 à 175 et même plus! Un bon nombre de personnes pensant que c’est en relation avec notre chapelle se laissent abuser! Nous affirmons avec force que nous n’avons rien à voir avec cette association!”
 Ibid. “D’ailleurs, la popularité de la médaille est telle qu’elle est fabriquée un peu partout et qu’il serait difficile d’en contrôler la production…. Ce n’est pas un produit commercial.”
 There was some news about TFP on May 4, 2004 that cited a deposition made in 2001 against TFP by a Fr. Jacques Trouslard. On January 24, 2007, Jean-Marc Ducos published an article (“Enquête sur une arnaque à la médaille miraculeuse”) for Le Parisien about the TFP Miraculous Medal affair. Also, the 2002 notice was confirmed as recently as 2015.
 The website had been established a few months earlier, but underwent development towards June, 2009. An E-mail address was provided for people to contact the webmaster (email@example.com).
 UN VRAI PROBLÈME DE SECTE A ENVAHI L’ÉGLISE ET INFESTE LA PETITE CAMARGUE : LA FRANC-MACONNERIE [.] L’ÉGLISE A RECRUTÉ PARMI LES FRANCS-MAÇONS DES PRÊTRES. DEPUIS QUE LES APPARITIONS DE MARIE À MEDJUGORJÉ ONT COMMENCÉ, LA DIANETIQUE DITE : « ÉGLISE DE SCIENTOLOGIE ». S’EST RALLIÉE À LA FRANC-MACONNERIE. IL FAUT SAVOIR QUE LA FRANC-MACONNERIE DIFFUSE DE FAUSSES MÉDAILLES DE LA RUE DU BAC (MÉDAILLES MIRACULEUSES) [.] LES LOUPS TRÔNENT AU MILIEU DES AGNEAUX. DIEU DIT : J’AI PARLÉ. À VOUS D’ENTENDRE.
 The title of the website is: “Oui, l’actualité pour moi, c’est Dieu notre Père !!! Sylvie qui se veut amie de Jésus Amen Alléluia !!! Je vous aime !!!” This translates into English as, “Yes, the news for me is God our Father !!! Sylvie who wants to be a friend of Jesus Amen Alléluia !!! I love you !!!” It has not been updated since February of 2015.
 “Là moi Sylvie Daigle, je précise mon nom pour éviter toutes confusion, j’aimerais vous partager les remarques d’un ami de Jésus au sujet de la fausse médaille:”
 Houla la !!!!!!!!!!!!! Énorme contrefaçon, hautement satanique !!! Aussi énorme que l’image du christ trafiqué de la NASA [.] 1. l’étoile devient centrale : elle est l’étoile du matin, symbole de Lucifer. 2. le sommet de la fausse croix est porteur d’un tête satanique[;] 3. Le M voit sa position inversée, retournée : ce qui était devant devient derrière, et réciproquement : autrement dit, satan qui est derrière est mis en avant, et le Christ est mis derrière[;] 4. le M n’est plus vertical mais incliné : autrement dit, il n’a plus valeur de pilier, car aucun pilier n’est porteur s’il est incliné[;] 5. L’épée ne transperce plus le coeur, mais est mise en arrière plan[;] 6. le coeur n’est plus un coeur mais un triangle couronné, et ce n’est plus une étoile qui le surplombe, mais une tête à double corne de bouc[;] 7. L’ensemble M et croix est comme… rayé de traits en travers, de vibrations horizontales alourdissantes pesamment terrestres, au lieu de ne présenter qu’un contour en or[.]
 Daigle’s comment about NASA allegedly doctoring an image of Christ is not a focus of this essay. On October 10, 2010, Daigle issued a follow-up post entitled “About the false medals published last year!!!” (Au sujet des fausses médailles publiés l’an passé!!!). There is nothing of interest to our present inquiry in this post.
 !!! ATTENTION !!! Une énorme contrefaçon hautement diabolique fait son œuvre de destruction en ce moment !!! ATTENTION !!!
De fausses Médailles miraculeuses circulent actuellement en grand nombre partout sur la planète. Des symbols sataniques y ont été intégrés discrètement. De plus, elles ont probablement reçues des incantations sataniques. Il ne faut pas utilizer ces médailles, mais s’en débarrasser. La procédure à suivre demande de les remettre à un prêtre qui saura comment en disposer. Ne les jetez pas à la poubelle car elles ont quand même été bénites. Le prêtre fera les prières appropriées pour les “débénir”. Voici à quoi ressemble une vraie Médaille miraculeuse sur ses côtés recto/verso:
 The French text, as it appears on the forum, is as follows with the changes marked in bold:
- L’étoile devient centrale : elle symbolise l’étoile du matin, qui est un symbole de Lucifer; 2. Le sommet de la fausse Croix est porteur d’un tête satanique; 3. Le M voit sa position inversée, retournée : ce qui était devant devient derrière, et réciproquement : autrement dit, Satan, qui est derrière, est mis en avant, et le Christ est mis derrière; 4. Le M n’est plus vertical mais incliné : autrement dit, il n’a plus valeur de pilier, car aucun pilier n’est porteur s’il est incliné; 5. L’épée ne transperce plus le coeur, mais est mise en arrière plan; 6. Le coeur n’est plus un coeur mais un triangle couronné, et ce n’est plus une étoile qui le surplombe, mais une tête à double cornes de bouc; 7. L’ensemble M et croix est comme… rayé de traits en travers, de vibrations horizontales alourdissantes pesamment terrestres, au lieu de ne présenter qu’un contour en or.
 “Ne les jetez pas à la poubelle car elles ont quand même été bénites. Le prêtre fera les prières, d’exorcisme.”
 “Aucune autres indications ne doivent y être inscrites, Pays, Nom de fabrique etc…”
 In order to compare this text with Daigle’s text, it is good to place the present text here:
FAUSSE Médaille Miraculeuse
1.) L’étoile devient centrale: elle symbolize l’étoile du matin, qui est un symbole de Lucifer; 2.) Le sommet de la fausse Croix est porteur d’une tête satanique; 3.) Le M voit sa position inverse, retournée: ce qui était devant deviant derrière, et réciproquement: autrement dit, Satan, qui est derrière, est mis en avant, et le Christ est mis derrière; 4.) Le M n’est plus vertical mais incliné: autrement dit, il n’a plus valeur de pilier, car aucun pilier n’est porteur s’il est incliné; 5.) L’épée ne transperce plus le Coeur, mais est mise en arrière plan; 6.) Le Coeur n’est plus un Coeur mais un triangle couronné, et ce n’est plus une flamme qui le surplombe, mais une tête à double cornes de bouc; 7.) L’ensemble M et croix est comme… rayé de traits en travers, de vibrations horizontals alourdissantes pesamment terrestres, au lieu de ne présenter qu’un contour en or.
 “Fausse médaille miraculeuse, voir site de la Rue de Bac.” The link followed this description.
 The website describes itself as being “simplified, to the most elementary bases,” and that it “wants to be humble to answer the simplest questions which one can ask oneself” (Ce site, simplifié, aux bases les plus élémentaires, se veut humble pour répondre aux questions les plus simples que l’on peut se poser). It continues on to say that “This site is inspired by the catechism manual of the Catholic Church, the books of saints, printers and the Jerusalem Bible” (Ce site s’inspire du manuel du catéchisme de l’Eglise catholique, des livres de saints, d’imprimaturs et de la Bible de Jérusalem). It also mentions that the site was composed with the help of the Linux operating system. The “contact us” page had an E-mail address of “firstname.lastname@example.org.”
 Attention, il existe malheureusement de fausses médailles miraculeuses. Il faut porter la médaille véritable demandée par la sainte Vierge. Pour se la procurer avec garantie, il est recommandé de l’acheter au sanctuaire de la rue du bac à Paris, ou dans des boutiques religieuses sérieuses. Mais pour en vérifier l’authenticité, il faut regarder la gravure du “M” au revers de la médaille. La 1ère barre oblique du M passe dessus la barre horizontale qui porte la Croix ; la seconde barre oblique passe dessous. En dessous du M se trouvent : le Coeur de Jésus avec la couronne et la Flamme, et le Coeur de Marie avec l’épée et la Flamme. Le tout entouré de 12 étoiles.
 “Un prêtre qui fait du ministère de libération m’a parlé de la médaille miraculeuse et de faire attention à celles qui ont une étoile au dessus de la croix tel que dans le modèle ci-bas; est-ce que quelqu’un d’autre a eu des commentaires en ce sens?”
 “Arc-en-ciel” was listed as being 61 years old at the time and joined the forum on April 27, 2009.
 “Cette médaille miraculeuse, qui est une pâle copie de la rue du Bac, vient de TRADITION FAMILLE PROPRIETE, qui l’envoie en nombre, pour obtenir des dons. (J’en ai recue 2 de ce genre) C’est une arnaque et non un signe signe satanique. Elle est fabriquée en Italie, les étoiles ne sont pas disposées comme l’original. Et il y a l’omission “qui avons recours à vous”. Je crois que ce prêtre, tout comme les “filles de la Charité”de la rue du Bac à Paris, dénoncent. Pour plus de renseignements. http://www.prevensectes.com/tfp.htm#presse”
 Inquiries have been made by St. Paul Street Evangelization, but there has been, as yet, no response from either organization.
 User “blazeingstar” made a useful contribution on this point, “Exactly. This seems to be more an issue of a poor copy with unintentional mistakes rather than something deliberate…especally [sic] if an older medal was copied. I carry an inch long miraculous medal that is well over 100 years old and the M looks like neither of the examples.”
 In a comment dated October 29, 2015, TAB responded to a person: “Thank you for informing me. I received the information from another source and they pointed it out. Thanks for the clarification.” What he meant by “received the information” is not clear. He is either referring to the story itself, or the A/M monogram clarification.
Just an young adult male who converted to the Roman Catholic Church through the grace of God & now belongs to the Associated Members of the Congregation of the Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer. It was by the Grace of God and my attraction to the ancient traditions of the Latin Church that I chose to become more curious as to what the Church has always taught and why. Throughout this blog I will be commenting upon the crises in the Church, the ancient Roman Rite, Catholic devotions and much more! If you stick around long enough, beware of a small furry white rodent named Jimmy papist who tends to rebel against me here and there […].
 This same avatar name also appeared on TAB’s site and challenged TAB.
 Fr. Relyea appears to have been granted faculties within the Archdiocese of Denver as of June 6, 2018. His last known residence, however, was in Hanceville, Alabama (May, 2020) near the Shrine of the Most Blessed Sacrament founded by Mother Angelica of EWTN.
 Sullivan posted this link whereas Pingel posted this one. The website described itself as “Your Masonic Rings Superstore with 1000+ Masonic Rings, and 7000+ other Masonic Products on sale at 30-50% off! Over 12 years in Business, 70,000 happy customers. Run by a Mason for Masons.” Phone number: 1-877-444-7595; Email: email@example.com; Shipped from: 889 Waverly Avenue Holtsville, NY 11742; Fax: 1-413-480-5132. It appears as though this store was not favorably reviewed by customers.
 Our Lady of Guadalupe, St. Christopher, St. Raphael the Archangel and others.
 The product code was: STUR5022.
 He was joined during the broadcast by another gentleman named Philippe De Guzman who is mentioned as being associated with a group called Libera Nox and the Diocese of Novaliches. De Guzman appeared on television around September 6, 2017 to discuss the matter of false rosaries.
 Some examples include: The Sun (England), World Religion News, and even the popular website Spirit Daily by Michael H. Brown (Florida). Brown contrasted it with a statement from Fr. Jozo Zovko of Medjugorje on Bernard Gallagher’s website The Medjugorje Witness.
 Minnie Agdeppa, “Exorcist priest warns against ‘satanic’ rosaries.” CBCP News (September 4, 2017). See also here. This particular piece of information was also quoted in an article dated September 5, 2017 by the publication Christian Today. This article is based upon the CBCP article. World Religion News also picked up the observation.
 We do not here cover the materials in the Spanish-speaking world about “false” miraculous medals. Instead, we shall say that it appears to have arisen around 2015 within the Spanish-speaking world.
 “1) Le stelle non hanno 5 punte, ma 6 punte. Si possono trovare anche versioni false con stelle a 5 punte, ma la disposizione e la posizione sono differenti rispetto all’originale.”
 “Nella versione falsa e massonica appare una stella con 6 punte sulla croce, che rappresenterebbe, secondo la simbologia massonica, la luce che porta lo stesso lucifero. Si possono trovare anche versioni con stelle a 5 punte invece di 6, ma sempre con una stella al di sopra della croce, posta in maniera perpendicolare, e molte volte questa stella è rovesciata. Nell’originale non si trova nessuna stella sopra la Croce, in modo perpendicolare rispetto ad essa, ma ci sono due stelle ciascuna posta ai lati superiori della Croce. Lo stesso si nota nella parte inferiore della medaglia.”
 A professor, Salvatore Conto, offered some reflections upon the matter on October 23, 2015 in a blog post entitled ”Miraculous Medal Version 2.0” (Medaglia Miracolosa versione 2.0). An undated Google website “Testimonianza di Fede,” has some discussion of the matter as well. It more or less repeats what we have just discussed.
 “Cosa fare con le medaglie false che si hanno? Una preghiera e si buttano nell’acqua corrente di un fiume o torrente o nel mare.”
 Dr. Franco Adessa, “Una Medaglia Miracolosa SATANICA!” Chiesa Viva, Anno XLVI, Number 493 (maggio, 2016): 17-21. The article was published in Spanish translation (see also here) and found itself on Gloria.tv.
 “Simboli della Massoneria e del Demonio sulla Medaglia di Rue du Bac? La Verità.” Miraculi e misteri (February 19, 2016): 6-7. This publication appears to be a tabloid akin to The National Inquirer and is not a professional publication.
 1. Le stelle non hanno 5 punte ma 6 punte. Si possono trovare anche versioni false con 5 punte, ma la disposizione e la posizione (delle stelle) sono differenti rispetto all’originale; 2. La “M” non ha una posizione dritta, ma inclinata; 3. La Croce e la “M” si incrociano in maniera opposta rispetto all’originale; 4. Sui cuori, appare, in modo camuffato, come se fossero spine, il simbolo della Massoneria, ossia, la squadra e il compasso; 5. La spada del Cuore di Maria non attraversa il medesimo Cuore, ma sta dietro; 6. La Croce ha una forma molto strana e i suoi bracci non sono diritti e, nella parte terminale di ciascun lato della Croce, appaiono delle punte. La versione falsa della croce, può terminare con punte che sembrano corna o forche e che ricordano, nella parte superiore (insieme alla parte che sta sopra) ciò che ha sulla testa Lucifero, così come rappresentato nell’iconografia satanica e massonica; 7. Nella versione falsa e massonica, appare una stella a 6 punte sulla croce, che rappresenterebbe, secondo la simbologia massonica, la luce che porta lo stesso Lucifero. Si possono trovare anche versioni con stelle a 5 punte invece di 6, ma sempre con una stella al di sopra della Croce, posta in maniera perpendicolare, e molte volte questa stella è rovesciata. Nell’originale, non si trova nessuna stella sopra la Croce, in modo perpendicolare rispetto ad essa, ma ci sono due stelle, ciascuna posta ai lati superiori della Croce. Lo stesso si nota nella parte inferiore della Medaglia».
 «Mi sono informato presso la Cappella di Rue du Bac, dalla quale, si può desumere anche dal sito ufficiale […] non risulta nessuna denuncia in merito a una presunta falsa medaglia miracolosa in circolazione”. Don Michele dice di credere che «sia soltanto un errore di riproduzione da parte di coloro che l’hanno coniata, senza prestare troppa attenzione alla posizione dei vari segni». There is no explanation or introduction regarding who Don Michele Barone is, but he appears to have been involved in exorcisms and was recently sentenced to 12 years in prison for inappropriate sexual behavior with a 13 year old female. He had previously been defrocked by Pope Francis.
 This post was subsequently reproduced on the website Regina della Pace on November 9, 2019. There was a slight difference in that this reproduction had a different image identifying the modified areas than the original post on La Medaglia Miracolosa.
 Sacramento, California: Queen of Peace Media, 2019.
 On September 3, 2020, the Bishop of Amos, Québec issued a letter of “disavowal” of Fr. Rodrigue’s alleged messages and prophecies. The Bishop of Hearst-Moosonee, Fr. Rodrigue’s Diocese, published a letter dated September 9, 2020 in which he also expresses his own “disavowal” of Fr. Rodrigue’s alleged messages and prophecies.
 A. Vecco and Sociis (edits.), Bullarium diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum romanorum pontificum. Tomus XXIV (Turin: Augustae Taurinorum, 1872), 366-367. See the website Papal Encyclicals for an English translation.
 Magnum Bullarium Romanum Tomus XVIII (Luxemburgi: Henrici-Alberti Gosse & Soc. Bibliopol, & Typograph, 1754), 212-214. There are English translations available, but they are of questionable reliability. There is an Italian translation available on the Vatican’s website.
 Cf. canons 2335-2336 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law. AAS 9/2 (1917), 441-442. An English translation can be found in Charles Augustine, O.S.B., A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law Volume VIII (St. Louis, Missouri: B. Herder Book Co., 1922), 339-347.